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      1. #1
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        Default Sự Thật về thuốc Siêu Nạc (Clenbuterol)

        Chúng ta đã nghe nhiều về vấn đề Heo Siêu Nạc.
        Hy vọng những bài trích sau đây có thể cho chúng ta biết sự thực về loại thuốc Siêu Nạc (Clenbuterol) đang được sử dụng trên thịt heo.

        Những thông tin này lấy từ trang
        www.isteroids.com/steroids/Clenbuterol.html

        Hy vọng bác nào rãnh rang dịch lại tiếng Việt để mọi người đọc. Thank you

        Clenbuterol
        Chemical Name: Clenbuterol Hydrochloride
        Drug Class: Lipolytic (fat burner)

        Clenbuterol (often called just “Clen”) is used by athletes and bodybuilders for it’s ability as a beta-2 agonist. It therefore stimulates your beta-2 receptors, which in turn help you to lose fat by allowing your body to release and burn more stored fat. Clen has been used for literally decades in the foreign veterinary world, for increasing the lean yield of livestock. It is clearly a very effective agent for this purpose, although its long half life and tendency to stay active in the body for long periods of time mean that vets in the United States aren’t able to use it. This is also the reason why (although it’s an asthma medication) it’s not available to asthmatics in the US of A. Albuterol is Clen’s shorter acting cousin, and that’s the FDA’s drug of choice here. But in the world of athletics, Clenbuterol has a much longer history of use.

        Specifically, it’s used for fat loss, and since we’re talking about fat loss here, and this purpose is what it’s most often used for by athletes. Briefly stated, Clen is used as a repartitioning agent, and what this means is simply that it will increase your ratio of Fat Free Mass (FFM) to Fat Mass (FM) (1). When you use Clenbuterol, besides (of course) noticing some fat loss, you’ll feel your body temperature rise a bit, and your appetite will be slightly repressed. (2)

        Anyway, as you may have guessed, because the FDA doesn’t allow Clenbuterol use in asthmatics, and the USDA doesn’t allow it in livestock, there aren’t a lot of human studies to really examine with regards to Clenbuterol. Unfortunately this makes research a bit difficult, as it’s well known that animals have a some important differences in their beta-receptor type and concentrations, but animal studies are still quite useful here.

        Clenbuterol is quite anti-catabolic and/or anabolic in almost every (animal) study ever done on it, although this hasn’t been studied or confirmed in human studies (3). Also, a trend we see with Clenbuterol administration in animals is that the doses used are very high- more than anyone I’ve ever heard of actually taking. So, what I’m saying is that if Clenbuterol is anabolic or anti-catabolic in humans, only mild anabolic or anti-catabolic effects can realistically be expected. We can take a look at horses given a human-like dose of clen (slightly over 1mcg/lb x2 a day) and exercised for nearly human-like times (20mins, 3x a week) showed very significant decreases in %fat (-17.6%) and fat mass (-19.5%). Interestingly, this significantly increased (+4.4%) at week 6 (1). This has been one of the reasons I have never believed in the 2 weeks on and 2 weeks theory of Clenbuterol administration. Why wouldn’t we want to use it for at least 6 weeks, considering the fact that it seems to have some profound effects during later administration. A “second wind” so to speak (get it? “second wind”? it’s an asthma med! Ha! Ok…moving along…).

        One of the primary drawbacks of Clenbuterol is that after a couple of weeks, it seems to stop working for most people. This is because it can cause a downregulation of pulmonary, cardiac and central nervous system beta-adrenergic receptors(4). This is why it seems to stop burning fat for most people at that point. To counteract this, you can take some Ketotifen, Benadryl, or Periactim every 3rd or 4th week that you remain on Clenbuterol. These are prescription anti-histimines, so they’ll make you drowsy (take before bedtime).

        Also, bear in mind that clen isn’t great for your heart, and can cause some issues there (enlargement of ventricles, etc…) but most studies showing Clen to cause heart problems are with animals, and even though the dosing is almost similar to what humans take (in some studies its within range of what would be double of a large human dose...). Again, it’s important to remember that animals have more beta-2 receptors and they cause certain event chains that humans’ beta-2 receptors may not, due to their relatively high concentrations. Clen causes cardiac hypertrophy to some degree, in some cases and even dose-dependent apoptotic and necrotic myocyte death (5). And since Clen depletes taurine (6) as do most if not all beta-agonists, you may want to supplement your Clen use with some Taurine.

        One of the weirdest things about Clenbuterol is that even though it’s an asthma medication, studies have shown reduced exercise (cardiovascular) performance with Clen (7), but some also show that Clen can alleviate exercise induced asthma (8)!

        Clenbuterol is one of the easiest drugs to find proper dosing for, and I’ve always made the same recommendations as to finding the appropriate dose for you. Basically, start with 20mcgs upon rising. If the side effects (possible anxiety, and shaking or sweating) aren’t too pronounced, then repeat that same dose again later in the day, and then once again in that day (again, if you find you can tolerate the effects). If you start experiencing intolerable sides, then decrease the does to where it’s tolerable. If not, then start increasing the dose more, very gradually.

        Don’t go over 200mcgs, though…and keep your Blood Pressure at (or under) 140/90. If your Blood Pressure goes over that, reduce your dose. If side effects are intolerable, decrease your dose.

        References:
        1. J Appl Physiol. 2001 Nov;91(5):2064-70
        2. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 Jun;18(6):429-33
        3. Ann Pharmacother. 1995 Jan;29(1):75-7
        4. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2004 Apr;88(3-4):94-100
        5. Muscle Nerve. 2005 Dec;32(6):767-74
        6. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;403:233-45
        7. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Dec;34(12):1976-85
        8. Respiration. 1987;51(3):205-13

        Clenbuterol Side Effects
        THE DIFFERENT CLENBUTEROL SIDE EFFECTS


        clenbuterolClenbuterol is commonly known as a weight loss pill all over the world. In the medical field Clenbuterol is primarily used as a bronchodilator for asthmatics and as a decongestant for those who have difficulty breathing. Since it is a very effective fat burner it has been used and abused in and out of the bodybuilding and athletic circles. As a matter of fact Clenbuterol is mostly abused in the entertainment industry since it is very popular among celebrities in keeping a trim and flab free body. It is considered a classic cutting steroid. However, there are no known researches that can back up the usage of Clenbuterol as a weight loss drug. Therefore, users should be extremely cautions when using this drug. Just like any other steroid, Clenbuterol has its share of side effects. Clenbuterol side effects are attributed to its characteristic as a thermogenic drug.

        While Clenbuterol is a good diet pill, it is not advisable to take the steroid without knowing Clenbuterol side effects. Clenbuterol is a Beta 2 sympathomimetic steroid. Sympathomimetic steroids affect the sympathetic nervous system. They are often used to treat cardiovascular and bronchial conditions such as asthma and hypertension. Since the initial effect of the steroid is to increase body temperature it is recommended that users stick to doses below 140mcgs. Perhaps the most noticeable Clenbuterol side effect would be the tremors and excessive sweating. This is to be expected since Clenbuterol has already began to work in the system. It has begun its fat and calorie burning process. As dosage is increased in increments of 20mcgs the faster fat is reduced.

        As increased dosage of Clenbuterol is administered to the body, it will experience more severe Clenbuterol side effects. Since this steroid affects the sympathetic nervous system the shaking of the hands and muscular tremors are a sign of its more severe Clenbuterol side effect which is nervousness. You may also experience muscular cramps. Clenbuterol also targets smooth muscles such as the cardiovascular muscles which in turn could cause palpitations, possible cardiac hypertrophy, and heart muscle necrosis which was noticed on animals but could affect humans as well. An experiment was done on horses to test the potency of Clenbuterol as a weight loss drug. It was discovered in the experiment that when the horses were given the same exercise regimen of humans there was a considerable drop in their weight.

        Check with your trainer or physician before using any steroid. Even those that claim to be same even in small doses can be harmful. Since Clenbuterol is a weight loss drug it can be very addictive. When there is increased dosage of Clenbuterol,side effects are also increased. Like with any steroid it is also very dangerous. Over dosage can produce Clenbuterol side-effects such as heart problems. It is also considered illegal in most countries so aside from knowing the Clenbuterol side-effects it is also best that you know the laws of your country pertaining to steroids.
        thay đổi nội dung bởi: VinhL, 26-05-12 lúc 13:39
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      2. Danh sách Hội Viên đã cảm ơn "VinhL" về bài viết có ích này:

        MANH NGUYEN (06-04-18)

      3. #2
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        Clenbuterol
        Clenbuterol Profile

        There is a lot of buzz regarding Clenbuterol’s ability to promote weight loss. Is this asthma medication truly an effective compound for you to lose weight?

        Clenbuterol is as a bronchodilator, prescribed for treatment of chronic breathing disorders. Outside of the U.S. it is a well-recognized drug used as an asthma medication, but it is in the U.S. where this drug’s ability to literally melt away body fat has been recognized. You can say that this can be due to the fact that this is where Hollywood is located where skinny and six-pack abs elicit adulation. Clenbuterol is being touted as the “size zero pill” and you’ll hear of big names such as Britney Spears using it for rapid weight loss.

        How Clenbuterol Works for Weight Loss
        Clenbuterol is designed to rapidly increase your body’s metabolism. When metabolism occurs, some substances are broken down or synthesized to provide fuel or energy for other processes within the body, and among these substances are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As your body speeds up metabolism, heat is created. This process is technically referred to as the “genesis of thermal energy” or thermogenesis.

        There are a couple of ways your body can achieve thermogenesis. Strenuous exercise can heighten your body’s usage of calories – the measurement of the body’s metabolic rate. Inactive people may use up to only 800 calories a day while others such as those engaged in sports like football can lose up to 5,000 calories per day.

        Your diet can also play a vital role in weight loss. If you ingest high cellulose diet (i.e., salad) it would be a big plus to your bodybuilding goal. To digest this type of diet requires it would require a lot of calories to digest, thus more calories are burned or used up to fuel the digestive process.

        There is, of course, the use of supplements to promote and hasten weight loss, and Clenbuterol is a prime example of this group of drugs. This drug fulfills far more beneficial effects than mere diet and exercise since it also speeds up aerobic capacity and improves oxygen transport in the body.
        Roi
        Clenbuterol Side Effects
        However, you must take note that Clenbuterol has only been approved in the U.S. to be used on animals, particularly on horses with breathing disorders. Also, it has not been approved to be used on animals that are meant for human consumption since Clenbuterol-contaminated food products may cause food poisoning.

        This drug has garnered negative publicity in the past years and only recently in China because it has been used in meat products. Eating Clenbuterol-treated products can cause palpitations, vomiting, nausea, chest tightness, shaking and trembling as well as instability. Long-term consumption can lead to growth of malignant tumors and can exacerbate pre-existing cardiac disorders. If ingestion is excessive, it can be fatal. These side effects are similarly observed with non-medical users of Clenbuterol, especially if the intake recommendation is not observed.
        thay đổi nội dung bởi: VinhL, 26-05-12 lúc 13:39
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      4. #3
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        Trích:
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clenbuterol

        Food contamination

        In September 2006, over 330 people in Shanghai were reported to have gotten food poisoning by eating pork contaminated by clenbuterol that had been fed to the animals to keep the meat lean.[13]

        In February 2009, at least 70 people in one Chinese province (Guangdong) suffered food poisoning after eating pig organs believed to contain clenbuterol residue. The victims complained of stomach aches and diarrhea after eating pig organs bought in local markets.[14][15]

        In March 2011, China's Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) said that the government would launch a one-year crackdown on illegal additives in pig feed, after a subsidiary of Shuanghui Group, China's largest meat producer, was exposed for using clenbuterol-contaminated pork in its meat products. A total of 72 people in central Henan Province, where Shuanghui is based, were taken into police custody for allegedly producing, selling or using clenbuterol.[16]
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      5. #4
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        Trích:
        http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology...1/paluska.html

        TAINTED MEAT: CLENBUTEROL USE IN THE MEAT INDUSTRY
        Elizabeth Paluska


        Humans are currently giving livestock hormones, steroids and antibiotics to increase the animals' value in the meat industry where size matters. The meat from these animals eventually finds it way to your plate. These animals that we are consuming are being "pushed" by an outside force, but how well do they "bounce back" and what are the consequences in consideration of the food chain? Perhaps not only are we disrupting the biological system of livestock, but ourselves as well.

        This issue is currently being explored in the livestock and meat industry due to the increase of a drug called clenbuterol HCl. This drug has become popular due to its desirable effects in livestock and their market value. However, this is not merely a social issue. Biology is inevitably a multidisciplinary and multifaceted field. In examining the sociological and economic factors of this phenomenon, one must also consider the biological consequences and vice versa. We must investigate to see if clenbuterol administration to livestock has consequences that disrupt biological systems, despite the economic and social factors.

        Clenbuterol HCl is a beta-adrenergic agonist that is used illegally in the United States and Europe to increase the leanness and protein content of cattle, swine and horses. According to studies done by the Agricultural Research Service, consumption of meat from veal calves exposed to clenbuterol can poison humans. Also recent studies by the ARS suggest that residues in edible tissues in swine exposed to clenbuterol remain high after slaughter, despite a withdrawal period from the drug. Their research has shown that even after a seven-day withdrawal period, the residues of the drug still exceeded European maximum residue levels. In conclusion, clenbuterol use in swine and other livestock was determined to be inconsistent with human consumption standards. Often the drug is used in competitions at livestock shows, but research by the Food Safety and Inspection service has found many incidences of clenbuterol use in feedlots. This phenomenon is not one of the past despite research dating back to the early nineties that resulted in the restriction of distribution and use of the drug in livestock.

        Often when ingested, animals will break the clenbuterol and other similar chemical compounds into non-toxic products. However, sometimes the chemical is broken down into a toxic product that is as toxic or even more toxic than the originally ingested clenbuterol (ARS). Most of the studies of the effects of clenbuterol are done on cattle due to the considerable usage of this chemical in the livestock industry. Also, young calves are given this drug to increase leanness and protein content as they are confined and prepared for the production of veal. According to the Agricultural Research Service, after calves are exposed to clenbuterol, the chemical is distributed throughout the body in numerous organs. Many of these organs, including the liver, kidney, muscle, and fat are edible organs that will eventually end up in the meat industry. They also stated that in tissues such as muscle and kidney, the parent clenbuterol represented 40-60% of the total residue. Their research also shows that the elimination of clenbuterol in cattle is significantly slower than in other species.

        How does this effect us? Recorded incidents of health problems associated with the consumption of meat with traces of clenbuterol include increased heart rate, muscular tremors, headache, nausea, fever and chills. According the Food Safety and Inspection Service, in 1990, there were 135 persons in Spain that reported illness after consuming meat that was later found to have traces of clenbuterol. Another incident involving 140 people was reported in 1994. Other outbreaks have been reported in France and Ireland. Several such outbreaks have been reported in the United States. Currently there are no available public studies on the long-term effects of exposure to clenbuterol in humans. Although most of these immediate symptoms are non-fatal, there is always the possibility that the effects overtime could be more serious. The majority of the research studies I found were about clenbuterol levels in animals - most often is major organs such as the liver. There are no analyses of human tissue. Since the drug is not fatal, perhaps the government believes there is no need to look for it. But are we missing something? Or perhaps there is something we are not being told. Currently, clenbuterol is illegal for edible animals. Ideally, the government can assume that the drug poses no threat to the American consumer. However, clenbuterol slips through the loopholes of the meat industry and onto our plate.

        Clenbuterol has recently been brought to the public's attention due to its common usage in livestock fairs and competitions (6). I interviewed a farming family from my home state that had quit showing livestock at the county and state level due to the use of growth steroids, including clenbuterol. "It's a well known fact that a lot of the competition at county and state fairs use clenbuterol to enhance the appearance of their cattle. It helps give the steer a muscular physique. We used to show our livestock, but keeping up with the competition means using growth steroid. Those cattle end up on your plate. We don't believe in that," states Emily Kinsinger of Ottumwa, Iowa. The use of clenbuterol and other growth steroids have been reported in many states where livestock are shown for competition. An interesting aspect to this phenomenon is that the majority of livestock at fairs are shown by children and young adults. Kinsinger explains, "Everyone knows that it is not allowed in competition and that it's illegal. But there is money involved, so people ignore the rules. Especially since it's not that hard to get." The FDA is currently investigating traces of clenbuterol found in steer, sheep and swine in livestock competition. According to the Food Safety and Inspection Service, most of the clenbuterol comes illegally from veterinarians who have approved use of clenbuterol for horses and other countries where the drug is approved for animals not used for food. There are no studies about the long-term exposure to clenbuterol in humans. Kinsinger comments, "We can't really know the long-term effects on cattle headed to the meat industry because of their inevitably short life span."

        According to Campbell, organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environment. Life involves a constant exchange of materials and energy between the system and the surroundings. Organisms' homeostatic feature can be held accountable for "bouncing back" from a change in the environment. But what happens when the energy in a certain system changes and the effects are not caused by a force of nature, but by the force of another organism - a chemical change in the environment. Ultimately, this "push" on the homeostatic nature of livestock ends up "pushing" humans as well. Clenbuterol ends up not only in cattle, swine and sheep, but on our plate and finally in our system. This is why we must consider the consequences long and short term of this drug and its result in the food chain.
        WWW Sources
        1)Agricultural Research Service, ARS homepage
        2)Agricultural Research Service, Clenbuterol HCL in Hostein Calves
        3)Agricultural Research Service, Clenbuterol Residues in Swine
        4)Food Safety and Inspection Service, Clenbuterol-backgrounders
        5)Sperling Bovine Biomedical Foundation
        6)Ohio Department of Agriculture,Livestock Tampering News Release
        Other Interesting Web Sites about Clenbuterol and the Meat Industry
        Cornell University Animal Science Web Server
        National Drug Strategy Network
        Food and Nutrition Digest
        The Synthesis, Pharmacology and Immunology of Some Clenbuterol Analogues
        State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products-Netherlands
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        Trích:
        FS3_-_Clenbuterol.pdf
        www.moniqa.org/webfm_send/568

        MoniQA Fact Sheet No 3 on:
        Clenbuterol (March 2009)
        Network of Excellence supported by the European Commission under FP6
        Coordinator: Roland Poms (ICC) www.moniqa.org
        Globalized trade in food means more choice for
        consumers. However, globalization can also threaten
        human health. Funded by the European Union, MoniQA
        (Monitoring and Quality Assurance in the Food Supply
        Chain) brings together 33 organisations from around the
        world that are working together to help food
        manufacturers, retail outlets and regulatory bodies to cope
        with the challenges posed by a globalised food economy.
        This factsheets provides an overview of clenbuterol and its
        detection in Chinese pork.
        The Clenbuterol Molecule
        What is Clenbuterol?
        Clenbuterol is a bronchodilator used in
        asthma medicine worldwide for the
        treatment of allergic respiratory disease in
        horses. A common trade name is
        Ventipulmin, and it can be used both orally
        and intravenously. Clenbuterol is also a
        non-steroidal anabolic and metabolism
        accelerator, through a mechanism not well
        understood, which is why it is used illegally
        by athletes to build muscle. Its ability,
        however, to induce weight gain and ensure
        a greater proportion of muscle makes its
        illegal use in livestock popular.

        Clenbuterol accumulates in the human body
        through ingestion. It is heat stable only
        decomposing at temperatures over 172
        degrees Celsius. Thus, cooking cannot easily
        eliminate toxicity.
        Long-term consumption
        can lead to malignant tumours but it also
        poses dangers to patients who have high
        blood pressure or diabetes.

        Patients and those with excess intake often
        share similar symptoms including
        palpitations, nausea, vomiting, dizziness,
        chest tightness, anxiety, shaking, weakness,
        and instability.
        Clenbuterol in Pork
        Clenbuterol accelerates the catabolism of fat
        in pigs and, when added to feed, it not only
        shortens growth time but also increases the
        sale price of pork and pig organs. Meat
        containing clenbuterol often has a bright red
        skin with very little fat.
        However, approval in
        the EU is for bovine and equidae use only.
        Maximum residue levels in products of
        animal origin are set in Regulation (EC)
        2391/2000 at:
        Animal species Target tissue MRL
        Bovine Kidney 0.5 μg/kg
        Liver 0.5 μg/kg
        Milk 0.05 μg/kg
        Meat .1 μg/kg
        Equidae Kidney 0.5 μg/kg
        Liver 0.5 μg/kg
        Meat 0.1 μg/kg
        MoniQA, an EU-funded project connecting global players in the field of food safety and quality,
        addresses the melamine crisis and other emerging issues in food safety.
        The Case in China
        In February 2009, 70 people fell ill after
        eating pork products contaminated with
        clenbuterol. The victims, all in Guangdong
        province, consumed meat bought from
        markets in Guangzhou, the provincial capital
        of Guangdong, which came from farms in
        the neighbouring Hunan province.
        Since 1998, there have been at least 19
        clenbuterol food poisoning cases in China
        affecting more than 1,750 people including
        one confirmed death.
        In 2006, a series of food borne illnesses in
        300 people from Shanghai were associated
        with meals containing pork or pig intestines
        contaminated with clenbuterol. In June
        2006, employees of a hotel in Foshan
        suffered from clenbuterol poisoning while
        hundreds of workers in a glass factory in
        Guangdong Province were also poisoned
        by clenbuterol in May 2006.
        70 employees at a plastics factory in Jiaxing
        City, Zhejiang Province were taken ill with
        clenbuterol poisoning after eating pork in the
        company cafeteria during November 2008.
        Between October 8 and 18 2008, three
        people were confirmed to have been
        poisoned by clenbuterol from pork in
        Page 1 Guangdong.
        For further information please visit our website:
        www.moniqa.org or contact moniqa@moniqa.org.
        A European Commission funded initiative within the Sixth Framework Programme
        Topic T5.4.5.1: Quality and safety control strategies for food (NOE)
        Contract N0. FOOD-CT-2006-036337
        MoniQA Emerging Issues Working Group
        One of several working groups within the MoniQA project, the Emerging
        Issues Working Group is tasked with keeping a watching brief on new and
        emerging issues in food safety on a global scale and undertaking horizon
        scanning for potential, as yet unregulated, food contamination hazards.
        Previous topics covered have included melamine in Chinese milk and dioxins
        in Irish pork and beef.

        For specific information about the Emerging Issues Working Group simply
        click on http://www.moniqa.org/emerging
        To download other MoniQA factsheets visit http://www.moniqa.org/media
        References
        Barbosa, J. et al. (2005) Food poisoning by clenbutarol in
        Portugal. Food additives and Contaminants 22(6): 563-566.
        Brambilla, G. (1997). Food poisoning following consumption of
        clenbuterol-treated veal in Italy. JAMA 278:635.
        Garay, JB. Et al. (1997) Intoxicatión por clenbutarol: Datos
        clínicos y analíticos de un brote epidemico en Móstoles. Madrid.
        Revista Clinica Espanoca 197: 92-95.
        Maistro, S. et al. (1995). Beta blockers to prevent clenbuterol
        poisoning. Lancet 346: 180.
        Martinez-Navarro, JF. (1990) Food poisoning related to
        consumption of illicit β-agonist in liver. Lancet 336:1311.
        Pulce, C. et al. (1991) Collective human food poisoning by
        clenbutarol residues in veal liver. Veterinary and Human
        toxicology 33: 480-481.
        In the Media
        http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/as.../china.poisoni
        ngs/index.html
        http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,500664,00.html
        MoniQA Fact Sheet No 3 on:
        Clenbuterol
        Network of Excellence supported by the European Commission under FP6
        Coordinator: Roland Poms (ICC)
        Emerging Issues Working Group:
        MoniQA and Clenbuterol
        MoniQA devotes a share of its resources to emerging (and
        previously unforeseen) food safety issues. The case of
        clenbuterol, whilst not currently an export issue, is nonetheless of
        international importance as cases are not limited to China.
        Though not recent, four separate cases of acute food poisoning
        in Portugal, involving 50 people, were caused by eating lamb or
        beef containing clenbuterol between April 1998 and April 2002
        (Barbosa et al. 2005), while similar cases have been reported in
        Spain, (Martinez-Navarro 1990; Garay et al. 1997), France (Pulce
        et al. 1991) and Italy (Maistro et al. 1995; Brambilla et al. 1997,
        2000).
        Methods for detection
        Clenbuterol is one of a group of drugs called beta 2-agonists,
        including mabuterol, terbutaline, carbuterol, cimaterol,
        salbutamol, clenpenterol, isoxsuprine, bambuterol and
        ractopamine. For control purposes the matrices of choice are
        urine and liver. Clenbuterol can be detected using screening
        methods based on immunochemical properties, eg. ELISA or
        optical biosensors. Alternatively a wide range of beta agonists
        can be screened and/or confirmed using liquid chromatography
        (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). When
        performing LCMSMS measurements for clenbuterol and a wide
        range of beta agonists, it is common for deuterated analogues to
        be used as internal standards
        thay đổi nội dung bởi: VinhL, 26-05-12 lúc 14:00
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      7. #6
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        Thuốc Siêu Nạc Ractopamine!!!

        Ta Tưởng đâu chỉ có tụi TQ mới chơi thuốc siêu nạc, ai dè đâu Mỷ, Canada, củng chơi, nhưng mà chơi loại ít độc hơn, Ractopamine!!!
        Trong khi rất nhiều nước trên thế giới đã cấm thuốc này kể cả TQ, nhưng anh Mỷ, và Canada lại cho sử dụng!!!

        Trích:
        http://usfoodpolicy.blogspot.ca/2012...e-in-pigs.html

        Three views of ractopamine in pigs
        Helena Bottemiller this week writes a thorough summary of the international trade controversies over U.S. exports of pork from pigs that have been treated with the growth promoter ractopamine hydrochloride. This animal drug is allowed under U.S. rules, but banned in many other countries, so U.S. trade negotiators have been pressing hard to get other countries to relent and allow small residues of the drug in imported pork.

        Bottemiller describes the history of testing by the drug's manufacturer, Elanco, in terms that could leave a reader quite concerned:

        The FDA ruled that ractopamine was safe and approved it for pigs in 1999, for cattle in 2003 and turkeys in 2008. As with many drugs, the approval process relied on safety studies conducted by the drug-maker — studies that lie at the heart of the current trade dispute.

        Elanco mainly tested animals — mice, rats, monkeys and dogs — to judge how much ractopamine could be safely consumed. Only one human study was used in the safety assessment by Elanco, and among the six healthy young men who participated, one was removed because his heart began racing and pounding abnormally, according to a detailed evaluation of the study by European food safety officials.

        When Elanco studied the drug in pigs for its effectiveness, it reported that “no adverse effects were observed for any treatments.” But within a few years of Paylean’s approval, the company received hundreds of reports of sickened pigs from farmers and veterinarians, according to records from the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine.

        USDA meat inspectors also reported an increase in the number of “downer pigs” — lame animals unable to walk — in slaughter plants. As a result of the high number of adverse reactions, the FDA requested Elanco add a warning label to the drug, and it did so in 2002.

        The company also received a warning letter from the FDA that year for failing to disclose all data about the safety and effectiveness of the drug.

        Some of the research literature is available on the USDA website, including this 2003 article by Marchant and colleagues, which indicates why there might be concern.

        We found that there were differences in 24h behavioral time budgets, with the ractopamine-fed pigs being more active and alert and taking longer to lie down after being disturbed. However, these differences were only apparent during the first 2 weeks. In contrast, ractopamine pigs remained more difficult to handle over the entire 4-week period. At the end of the 4-week period, they also had higher heart rates than control-fed pigs and higher levels of circulating stress hormones.

        We conclude therefore, that feeding ractopamine to pigs does affect behavior and physiology. Pigs that are more difficult to move are more likely to be subjected to rough handling and increased stress during transportation, implying reduced welfare, increased workload for the handlers and, potentially, poorer meat quality. However, for this conclusion to be applicable to the finishing pig population in general, other genetic lines should be tested.

        I have been spending some time recently thinking about what makes many Wikipedia articles excellent, and also about the limitations of the free encyclopedia approach. Interestingly, the Wikipedia article on ractopamine is highly technical, as if written by an animal science expert, and generally downplays the safety concern. Although the Wikipedia article includes the Bottemiller article as one recent reference, its summary of the animal safety issue seems to contrast both with her article and with the Marchant article cited above. Here is the section in full:

        Target animal safety

        Ractopamine is safe for finishing pigs heavier than 240 pounds when administered in the diet at concentrations up to 10 ppm and fed for up to 35 days. However, there was an increase in the number of ractopamine hydrochloride-treated animals exhibiting signs of injury during the final drive to slaughter. (FDA)

        I suppose the second sentence captures the animal health issues sufficiently? Of course, the great thing about Wikipedia is that articles are constantly changing and commonly improving.

        Trích:
        http://www.inspection.gc.ca/animals/.../1331129741124
        Approved Brands

        PAYLEAN 20 PREMIX contains ractopamine hydrochloride at 20 g/kg (Elanco).
        OPTAFLEXX 100 PREMIX contains ractopamine hydrochloride at 100 g/kg (Elanco).

        Approved for use

        In meal or pellet feed for finishing barrows and gilts and finishing beef cattle and finishing heavy turkeys (toms and hens) only.

        Note:

        PAYLEAN 20 PREMIX is approved for use in swine (barrows and gilts) and heavy turkey (toms and hens) only.
        OPTAFLEXX 100 PREMIX is approved for use in confined finishing beef cattle feeds only.

        Approved Claims

        For finishing barrows and gilts - Claims 1 and 2.
        For confined finishing beef cattle greater than 400 kg body weight - Claims 3 and 4.
        For finishing heavy tom turkeys in their last 14 days prior to slaughter - Claim 5.
        For finishing heavy hen turkeys in their last 7 to 14 days prior to slaughter - Claim 6.
        Claim 1: For increased carcass leanness, increased dressing percent, improved rate of weight gain and improved feed efficiency in finishing barrows and gilts.

        Level of Drug: 10 mg/kg (0.001%) of the complete feed.

        Directions:

        Feed continuously as sole ration to finishing barrows and gilts, that are a minimum 70 kg starting body weight for no longer than six (6) weeks.

        Note:

        To obtain the performance benefits of ractopamine hydrochloride, diets should contain a minimum of 16% crude protein, or its equivalent obtained by amino acid (0.85-0.95% lysine) fortification. Dietary specifications should be determined in consultation with a recognized swine nutritionist (required on premix and supplement labels, only).

        Warning:

        Ractopamine hydrochloride is beta-adrenergic agonist. Individuals with cardiovascular disease should exercise special caution to avoid exposure to this medicated feed (required on premix and supplement labels, only).
        When mixing and handling this medicated feed, use protective clothing, impervious gloves, and a dust mask. Operators should wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling. If accidental eye contact occurs, immediately rinse thoroughly with water. If irritation persists, seek medical attention (required on premix and supplement labels, only).
        Keep out of reach of children (required on premix and supplement labels, only).

        Caution:

        Do not feed to breeding swine.
        Do not feed to pigs intended to be retained for breeding.
        Do not feed medicated feeds containing ractopamine hydrochloride for more than six (6) weeks.
        The use of ractopamine hydrochloride in pigs finishing over 132 kg body weight has not been studied.
        Pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride may be at increased risk for exhibiting the fatigued or downer pig syndrome particularly when marketed at high body weights. Pig handling methods to reduce the incidence of fatigued or downer pigs should be thoroughly evaluated prior to initiating the use of this medicated feed.
        .......................
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        Đây là một tài liệu tốt cần phổ biến khắp nơi có người Việt Nam cư ngụ. Hy vọng diễn đàn sẽ có người tự nguyện tốn thời gian để chuyển dịch tin tức này và gởi cho mọi diễn đàn và bằng hữu khắp nơi để đồng bào và người thân của chúng ta có thể tự vệ trước cuộc tấn công này của gian thương Trung Quốc.
        Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.

        Albert Einstein

      9. #8
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        Sau khi điều tra thêm về cái vụ Tẩy Thịt, thì biết rằng tất cả các loại thuốc tẩy thịt đều ở dạng Sulfite (SO3).
        Như vậy có cách để thử thịt đã bị tẩy không?
        Dĩ nhiên là có. Đó là cách dùng Sulfite Test, mà dạng dể dùng nhất là test strip!!!

        Trích:
        http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.in.../sulphites.htm

        SULPHITE TEST RESULTS ON MINCED BEEF

        Food Intolerance Network members have been using sulphite test strips to test butcheries around Australia for the illegal presence of sulphites in minced beef.

        Mince is not allowed to contain ANY sulphites.

        While FIN has the names of the butcheries, samples were not taken under legal conditions and the test-strip method, while calibrated and corrected for blank readings, is not the recognised legal test method. Therefore the names of butcheries are not given in the table below but are supplied to regulatory authorities.

        Tests are continuing. The results on 65 butcheries to date are:

        overall, 43% of mince in Australia, New Zealand and Sweden contained illegal sulphites at levels high enough to cause asthma.
        The ACT was the worst state by far.
        While small butcheries are the usual offenders, the highest results were actually from big butcheries in one supermarket chain and in non-imported meat in Sweden.
        Don't buy your mince on Fridays or weekends after the health inspectors have knocked off.

        Click picture to download full-size media-printable photograph.

        Click here for details of how to buy test-strips from Merck Pty Ltd and how to use test-strips.

        Click on button for a Factsheet on sulphites.

        Detailed results on sulphite test strips – the Food Intolerance Network has been distributing these at cost within Australia, Sweden and New Zealand to allow people to test minced meat for the illegal presence of sulphites. Of 65 results returned in the last year, 28 (43%) contained sulphites at >200ppm. The legal limit is zero! The illegal results state-by-state are ACT 86% (of 7 samples, including equal highest in the survey at 640ppm), NSW 22% (of 23 samples), NT 33% (of 9 samples), NZ 67% (of 6 samples), QLD 50% (of 6 samples), SA 100% (1 sample only), TAS 0% (1 sample only), VIC 0% (3 samples only), WA 50% (of 6 samples) and in Sweden 100% in non-imported meat including equal highest at 640ppm (3 samples only). While people are most likely to report positive rather than negative results to the Network, the illegal presence of these known causes of asthma is a real concern. The detailed results will be provided to FSANZ again.



        See letters to and from FSANZ regarding the illegal use of sulphites in mince.

        Date of last update: 3/11/2004

        TO BUY SULPHITE TEST-STRIPS FROM MERCK PTY LTD

        In Australia, ring 1800 335 571 and ask for Customer Service.

        Ask for Merck Sulphite Test Strips "Mercoquant 110013". They cost $70.00 plus GST plus $35 freight = $112.00 for 100 tests. Provide your credit card details over the phone plus a street delivery address. They are a stock item and should arrive within 5 working days.

        DETAILS OF HOW TO USE THE TEST STRIPS

        You have sulphite test-strips. Their active end, which you put into the meat and don't touch with your fingers, has a small white square on it. There is a colour scale on the outside of the in the plastic bag.

        In addition, you will need the following, all rinsed and dried thoroughly between uses: Measuring teaspoon, Small glass tumbler, Small fork, Chilled water, Knife.

        Buying the meat samples

        Best to buy the samples fresh, keep cool and test as soon as you get home. Friday afternoon is a good time because those butchers who use sulphites illegally often wait until the inspectors are unlikely to call. Ask for 250g. Make sure that you label the bag with the date and name of the butcher so there can be no mix-ups.

        Testing the meat sample.

        Put two teaspoons of chilled water into the tumbler.
        Slash open the plastic bag containing meat. Make a diagonal cut in it with a clean knife to expose the centre of the meat. Scoop out a teaspoon full from one end of the cut surface, level with the knife if needed, and drop into the tumbler. Repeat, taking the sample from the other end of the cut surface.
        Thoroughly macerate the mince and chilled water with the fork so that it is a uniform sludge. This takes about 15 seconds to do properly.
        Without touching the active end of the Sulphite test strip, dip the active end into the mince sludge for one second. Make sure that it is thoroughly wetted by wriggling it around.
        Take out of the sludge, flick clean and time exactly 30 seconds. You can rinse briefly with cool water to get any meat off the active end.
        Compare the colour of the active end with the colour scale supplied. Put the active end and the colour scale side by side and try the next higher and the next lower to be certain.
        Write down the reading. Note that meat contains some sulphites anyway from the high level of protein, so some pink colour is expected.
        Don't panic if you get 80ppm. The calculation is to take 80 from the reading and then multiply by 2. Therefore a reading of 80 is 0 ppm. A reading of 180ppm is 200ppm after correction. ppm means parts per million.
        If you want to inform the Food Intolerance Network of your result, send the information below to confoodnet@ozemail.com.au

        Các bạn nào có thân nhân ở Úc hay nước ngoài có thể nhờ họ mua giùm.
        Merck Sulphite Test Strips "Mercoquant 110013". They cost $70.00 plus GST plus $35 freight = $112.00 for 100 tests.
        thay đổi nội dung bởi: VinhL, 26-05-12 lúc 21:51
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      10. Danh sách Hội Viên đã cảm ơn "VinhL" về bài viết có ích này:

        vân từ (27-05-12)

      11. #9
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        Ở tỉnh Đồng Nai - là tỉnh chăn nuôi lớn nhất Việt Nam. Hiện rất nhiều nơi xử dụng chất cấm trong chăn nuôi như an thần, tạo nạc,... Và chất tạo nạc giúp bán giá heo cao hơn so với loại chăn nuôi theo công thức bình thường.

        Tạo ra nhiều đại gia bất chánh thì .....
        Non nước có màu lòng khách hớ
        Trúc mai làm bạn hứng thơ nồng
        Chốn điền viên cũ dầu thong thả
        Đạo thánh hiền xưa luống chốc mòng.

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